Examples in modern

Examples in modern culture There are examples of gift economies in today’s global economy. The blood banks exist in many countries do not give an explicit reward for donations. The families of organ donors do not receive any compensation for the donation. In fact, someone charged for organs is considered a suspect, may even be a crime. The information is well provided for a gift economy because it can be copied and transmitted with virtually zero cost. When you share information, do not stay without it, although you may lose the benefits that can be earned in a market economy with intellectual property rights. Scientific research is an example of gift economy of information. Scientists write research papers that are quick to publish in journals and conferences. Other scientists can cite them for free.In fact, the more times it is cited a scientist is more prestigious, which can be converted into funds. All scientists benefit from global knowledge of the scientific community. Free software communities are another example of gift economy of information. Developers get the source code of their programs on the Internet so that anyone can copy it or, more importantly, modify and improve it. Thus, programmers get prestige and respect, while the whole community benefits from a better program. Ronald Coase argued that corporations are a form of production more efficient than the market. Yochai Benkler wrote an article entitled “Coase’s Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm” in which he says that there is a third mode of production called collaborative work.Charles Leadbeater speaks of the “revolution of professional amateurs” and “professional amateur economy” in which fans motivated by economic reasons not grow in power and support the shared economy. Efforts such as Creative Commons led by Lawrence Lessig encouraged to share and argues that both society and corporations benefit from this exchange. Jordan Hubbard in an article in the journal “Queue” says that open source is an economy based on barter, even if the description matches that of a gift economy, “software engineers volunteers in the community of open source software are much more willing to help those who have demonstrated their determination to the success of open source development. ” In other words, reciprocity is an issue for the whole community, not a simple quid pro quo.An example of gift economy widely used is “Beyond Barter” (beyond barter), also known as “The Los Angeles Skills Pool” (the stock of skills in Los Angeles). The members of this community are from 1975 of all kinds to share services between them. Although there is no “quid pro quo” to receive a service, members have to offer useful services to others and must be available to perform them as needed. In most families there are economies of gift miniature, with gifts on time, money, food, accommodation or services that are given without negotiation or instant reciprocity. It also occurs in the guidance that a mentor gives his disciple, the aim is that the disciple becomes mentor. In societies of the Pacific Islands before the nineteenth century were the gift economies, some of which reach today.For example, in some of the Cook Islands. In Tokelau, although there has been a market economy, there remains a way of gift economy in the practice known inati: share equally all the food in each atoll. Today there are diaspora communities in New Zealand, Australia and the United States. While participating in the market economy of their countries, some still try to maintain similar customs to the gift economy, as money and gifts reciprocal. The idea of mutual gift is an essential part of the culture of Samoa (fa’asamoa), Tonga (fakatonga anga) and Pacific diaspora communities.